human kind has two different type of sex as man and woman. When children are
born, their parents arrange everything depend on their sexes. Therefore, methods
of child care differ from girl babies to boy babies. Parents could not rise
children by ignoring their sex differences. Since children also differ from each other due to
their bio-psycho-social differences.
Biological differences between men and
women cause to differentiations in their growth patters. During the sixth and
twelfth week of pregnancy, children develop their sex organs as a male or
female due to absence or presence of testosterone (Swaab, 2014). After that their brains modulate itself throughout
female and male lines, during the second of pregnancy. Therefore, the gender
identity of a child is determined in the womb. (Swaab, 2014) Furthermore, testosterone
produce aggression therefore men are more aggressive and have more inclination
to show antisocial behaviors than women however, girls with Congenital Adrenal
Hyperphoria (male-type hormone) tend to show aggressive behaviors like boys
(Boyse, 2011; Swaab, 2014).
In addition to than testosterone also
affect children on choosing toys. Boys prefer to play with soldiers and cars,
but girls tend to play with dolls (Swaab, 2014). Alexander and Hines (2002), put forward idea
about sex differences on choosing toys by conducted research on primates. The
results showed that female monkeys preferred to play with dolls instead of cars
and balls due to its motherly behaviors. However male monkey preferred to play
with balls and cars. Hence, the results of experiment support the evolutionary
perspective about sex differences (Swaab, 2014).
Another sex-related difference observed in
the neurochemistry of men and women. Researches showed that transmitting,
regulating and processing biomolecules are displayed in different patterns by
male and female (Hines, 2010). For instance, monoamines are kind of a
neurotransmitters included dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, that are
closely related with controlling stress response, sexual behaviors and
respiration systems (Ngun, 2011). These neurotransmitters are exhibit
differentiation depend on sexes. Serotoninergic system also displays different
patterns due to sex differences (Hines, 2010).
scientists were believing that the child is born with a tabula rasa and social
influences determine their gender as male or female (Swaab, 2014). However, the case study is known a John-Joan
and John showed that social influences are not the certain ways to determine a
person’ s gender. John was a little boy who lost his penis at the age of eight months
(Swaab, 2014). Therefore, his parent
decided to turn him to Joan (a girl). His parent dressed him in girls’ clothes
and received psychotherapy from John Money who was sexologist (Swaab, 2014). Joan
(John) was taking estrogen during the teenage (Swaab, 2014). Money announced
the case study as great success (Swaab, 2014). The child has developed as a normal female however,
the child knew that he had sex change and then he decided to be man again, he
got married and adopted a child with his wife (Swaab, 2014). Sadly, he suffered
because of stressful times in his life. He divorced with his wife and he
committed suicide in 2004. This sad story shows how strongly hormones,
especially testosterone play role in people sexual identity (Swaab, 2014).
between men and women produce differentiations in their growth patters. The
chief aim of family is providing prepared social identity for its members.
Children are born into determined social class, religion, race and so on.
(Sociological perspective on the family). For example, Women in Saudi Arabia
could not go travel, take education and work without get a permission from male
relatives, a father or husband because of their cultures and religions (Hamdan,
2005). In addition to that, Saudi Arabia has an educational system based on sex
difference. Boys are educated by minister of education (Hamdan, 2005). However,
girls are educated by the general presidency for girls’ education which has
been heavily influenced by religion and the main of the institution is educate
girls to be good views women, mothers and training them to have ‘acceptable’
jobs (Hamdan, 2005).
According to social
structured theory put forward the sex-oriented social roles produce
psychological differences between men and women (Denisiuk, 2004). The
differences between genders are based on social environments (Denisiuk, 2004). Each sex face different situation based on the
variety of historical, cultural and social period as well as differentiations
in technology, ecology and communities (Denisiuk, 2004). In many societies, when a woman became
pregnant, people around her try to learn what is the sex of baby. Because they
will buy a gift depend on sex, dolls for girls soldiers for boys or pink for
girls and blues for boys. Therefore, children are forced to have a gender
depend on their sexes (Swaab, 2014).
In addition to that, Bandura’s Social Learning
Theory showed that children learn through observing their parent behaviors and
attitudes and that include sex differences (Mclead, 2016). Boys tend to take
men as a model because they recognized they have same-sex with them. Likewise,
girls have inclination to take women as a model because of the sex similarities
(Mclead, 2016). Social learning theory gives an explanation about human
behavior from the point of reciprocal interaction between environmental,
cognition and behavioral effects (Mclead, 2016).
also cause differences in child-rearing methods. Personality makes someone who
they are and effects the ways people tend to behave, feel and think (Pappas,
2017). The broadly accepted personality traits model is the five-factor model and
known as the big five. These personality traits are openness,
conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism (Pappas, 2017). Each
person behaves toward other people depend on these personality traits. For
example, a child who has an extraversion personality trait is more energic,
sociable and cheerful than a child with introversion personal trait (Pappas,
psychodynamic perspective, children complete their personality during the early
childhood period (Wood, 2005) Their personalities consist of id (aggressive and
pleasure driver), superego (moral control) and ego (the balance between id and
ego). All the early childhood experiences effect children personality (Wood,
2005), Therefore, parents should be careful during this period. In addition to
that in this critical period, boys face to oedipal complex and girls face to electra
complex (Wood, 2005) Children should overcome this stressful period with their
parents helps to build a strong personality (Wood, 2005).
Girls generally start
puberty almost one year earlier than boys (Swaab, 2014). During the
adolescences, youngsters have no totally matured brain. Especially, their
pre-frontal cortex which is closely related with problem solving, analytic
thinking and so on, is still developing during this period (Swaab, 2014). They
can make many mistakes because of their immature brain. Therefore, parents
should help them to make a right decision (Swaab, 2014). Furthermore, boys show
more aggressive behaviors than girls because of the high level of testosterone.
Parents should be supportive to their children during this critical period
because adolescence has indisputable impact on children’s psychological
development (Swaab, 2014).