November 21, 2019

Tarush measuring devices available in the market are having

Tarush Ganesh Shenoy

Electronics and Telecommunication

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Thakur College of Engineering and Technology,Mumbai

[email protected]

Sanath Kumaresha Acharya

Electronics and Telecommunication

Thakur College of Engineering and Technology,Mumbai

[email protected]

Neeraj Jangid

Electronics and Telecommunication

Thakur College of Engineering and Technology,Mumbai

[email protected]

 

 

 

Dr. VinitkumarDongre

Electronics and Telecommunication

Thakur College of Engineering
and Technology,Mumbai

[email protected]

 

 

Abstract—Worldwide, there is an
average demand of nearly 96 million barrels of oil and liquid fuels per day.
With such high demands of fuel, we cannot afford to have losses. The major
losses take place when this fuel is stored and the measurements are taken. The
fuel tanks are majorly 40m in height as well as 40m in radius. In such large
fuel tanks, even an error of a small millimeter can cause a large loss. Thus it
is really important to design a system which is highly accurate in measuring
fuel levels. The current measuring devices available in the market are having
an accuracy of 3mm-10mm. Using FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave) RADAR
at a very high frequency (of 24GHz) is what we aim, so as to lessen the error
up-to 1mm. By doing this we can save up-to 4000$ dollar behind every fuel tank.
The system works on the beat frequency concept. The receiver system is designed
for receiving the beat frequency and processing the received signal to get the fuel
level measurement.

Keywords- FMCW, high frequency, 24GHz, LNA, Signal
processing, quadrature mixer, accuracy, beat frequency, LABview

                                                                                                                                                                
I.         
Introduction

In recent times, FMCW (Frequency Modulation Continuous
Wave)are being widely used for the measurement of distance/range in a variety
of industrial applications like automotive safety, level gauges, defense seekers, security etc. It is popular in most of the modern industrial plants
for the measurement of bulk materials since
the digital approach is more flexible and program updates are very easy. Here,
our aim is to use FMCW radar operating in the frequency range of 24-24.3 GHz so
as to obtain much better and accurate results.
Currently available products in the market give accuracy of about 3mm-10mm
which causes large loss in mass storage tanks (40m in height x 40m in radius). The
main focus of this project is to reduce that error of measurement to about
0.05mm. The work for this project has
been effectively carried out and the software simulation has been done and
tested successfully. Once this system is deployed, the losses faced by the
industries for the same can be minimized. A lot of intense research is being
done to find out the best hardware components that could be used to such
accurate implementation. Due to hardware and environmental constraints we are
targeting the expected hardware accuracy between 0.5mm and 1mm, which will be
far better than the current available products. The ultimate idea is to
productize a device which gives accuracy less than or equal to 1mm and save the
losses of the fuels due to inaccurate measurement.

                                                                                                                                                   
II.        
LITERATURE SURVEY

1 M. Challal, A. Azrar, H. Bentarzi, Electrical Engineering and
Electronics DGEEFSI, University of Boumerdes UMBBBoumerdes, ALGERIA published a
paper on “Microstrip Design of Low Noise Amplifier forApplication in NarrowBand
and WideBand”. Here a low-noise amplifier (LNA) is presented in thispaper. The
LNA is designed and optimized for narrowband andwideband operations along with
minimum noise figure around 24GHz (K-Band). The designed LNA employs microstrip
input andoutput matching networks; it achieves a noise figure of 3.85 dBand
10.55 dB of gain along with 10.27 dB and 17.83 dB of inputand output return
losses, respectively for its narrow band. Whereas for its wideband it
accomplishes a gain of 6.5 dB with ±0.3 dBflatness from 24 to 25.25 GHz
wideband frequency range, thenoise figure obtained for the presented LNA is in
close proximityto the minimum noise figure over 23 – 24.5 GHz frequency range.

 

2 Jeffrey Keyzer, Anthony Long published a paper on “A Dual-Stage Low-Noise Amplifier for 24 GHz Using
Packaged p-HEMTs” where amplifier designs exist at 24 GHz which employ the use
of inexpensive, packaged components. A designwas presented which used commonly
available components and construction techniques to achieve a noise figure of
2.0 dB and 14 dB of gain.

 

3 Zhao Zeng-rong, Bai Ran Electronics
Department of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, China published a paper “A
FMCW Radar Distance Measure System based on LabVIEW” which presents an
acquisition and process system for frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW)
radar. The procedure was designed in LabVIEW7.0. The system adopted FMCW radar
sensor and high-quality data acquisition card. The intermediate frequency (IF)
signal of the FMCW radar could be collected in time. The intermediate
frequency, distance and velocity forward vehicle can be calculated by an
improved algorithm. It can give the alarm when a collision danger is predicted,
and it can assist the driver to brake control, thus some collision accidents
will be avoided. The design method of the system and test data is given
simultaneously. The effectiveness of the designed system is verified by some
real tests.

 

4 CunlongLi ,Weimin Chen, Gang Liu from College
of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, China;  published a paper “A Noncontact FMCW Radar
Sensor for Displacement Measurement in Structural Health Monitoring” which
investigates the Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar sensor for
multi-target displacement measurement in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM).
The principle of three-dimensional (3-D) displacement measurement of civil
infrastructures is analyzed. The requirements of high-accuracy displacement and
multi-target identification for the measuring sensors are discussed. The
fundamental measuring principle of FMCW radar is presented with rigorous
mathematical formulas, and further the multiple-target displacement measurement
is analyzed and simulated.

 

5 Johanngeorg Otto published a paper on “Radar
Applications in Level Measurement, Distance Measurement and Nondestructive
Material Testing” which presents first an overview over commercial microwave
sensor systems in the field of level measurement of liquids and bulk goods.
Advances in microwave technique and digital signal processing created new
markets in process engineering. There a two classes of microwave level sensor
systems: high precision sensor for storage tanks and sensors for process tank
with hard measuring conditions like high temperature, pressure, turbulences,
agitators etc. There exist CW as well as pulse radar systems. The signal
processing in tanks differs from standard free space distance measurement
because of the comparatively small measuring distance and the variety of
multiple and unwanted echo paths. Special features of this signal processing
are presented.

 

6 SerdalAyhan, Mario Pauli, Thorsten Kayser
from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany published a paper on
“FMCW radar system with additional phase evaluation for high accuracy range
detection” which presents a radar based approach of range detection depending
mainly on the utilized radar principle which allows either high accuracy or
high unambiguous ranges. For the most widely used FMCW radar the entire
distance is not restricted in the meter range whereas the achievable accuracy
directly depends on the bandwidth. An improvement is only possible if system
parameters are changed or a smart signal processing is applied. In this paper
an approach was described which extends the FMCW radar with an additional phase
evaluation to facilitate also high accuracy using low-cost radar components and
none intensive processing methods.

 

7 Hyeokjin Lim and Seongjoo Lee Department of
Electrical Engineering, Korea published “A Short Range FMCW Radar System with
Low Computational Complexity” in which a short range FMCW (Frequency Modulated
Continuous Wave) radar system with low computation complexity is proposed. In order
to improve the frequency linearity, the proposed FMCW radar system adopts the
digital frequency modulation with the counter and look-up tables for sine and
cosine waves in an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).

 

                                                                                                                                                     
III.       
PROPOSED SYSTEM

A.   
Block
digram of the proposed system

Fig. 1: Block
diagram for FMCW radar (Receiver Section)

 

LNA (Low Noise
Amplifier): Possibly weak signals received by an antenna are amplified and
noise is reduced.

Quadrature Mixer: Two copies of the received signal are generated,
one 90 degrees delayed with respect to the other, and these are separately
mixed with transmitted signal. The output
is two signals, viz. I and Q signals. They are samples of the same signal that
are taken 90 degrees out of phase, and they contain different information.
Higher frequencies are down-converted to
lower frequencies

LPF: It is a filter which passes low-frequency signals and blocks,
or impedes, high-frequency signals.

ADC: It converts the analog signal to Digital signal which is then
sent to the Digital Signal Processing section.

Signal Processing: Here the digital signal is processed using
LabView software and the fluid level in the tank is calculated.

B.   
Working principle

A high-frequency
signal of 24GHz is first emitted using a radar in the proposed system. This
signal after hitting the target gets reflected and the reflected frequency is
captured by the system. A difference between the transmitted and the reflected
frequency(?f) is calculated and is transformed using Fourier transformation
(FFT) for further calculations. The distance calculation
is done on the basis of this difference a much accurate result is obtained.

Fig 2:
Graphical representation of Transmitted wave and Received wave

 

 

Here,                D
= c.l?tl / 2

                          = c.l?tl / 2.(df/dt)

Where,

c0 = speed
of light = 3·108 m/s

?t = delay
time s

?f =
measured frequency difference Hz

R = distance
between antenna and the reflecting object

df/dt =
frequency shift per unit of time

The delay
(?t) is proportional to difference between the transmitted and received wave
(?f).

                         

                                                                                                                                
IV.       
Hardware Components Required

The hardware being employed for such high-frequency circuit implementation are:

A.   
Rogers RT
Duroid RO5880 substrate (0.787mm)

This substrate is specifically chosen so as the handle the
24-24.3GHz frequency. This substrate can withstand this high frequency with
very minimal, Lowest
electrical loss for reinforced PTFE material, Low moisture absorption,
Isotropic, Uniform electrical properties over frequency, Excellent chemical
resistance. Complete implementation of LNA (Low Noise Amplifier), Quadrature
mixer circuit and SSC (Signal Conditioning Circuit) will be done on 20 mil (1
thousand of an inch) substrate which is able to handle such high frequencies.

B.   
High-frequency
Low Noise Amplifier Processor

A low noise amplifier (LNA) significantly improves the
performance of most radio communications systems. To facilitate the
construction of a transceiver at 24.192 GHz, a dual stage LNA has been designed
using the NE32984D.

C.   
Other Accessories:

Coaxial cables, connectors, high-frequency resistors, ultra-capacitors,
and inductors are been employed to give maximum output.

                                                                                                                                                                     
V.        
Designing

A.   
LNA Design

Fig
3: LNA architecture

The key figures of merit for a down conversion system are
the system noise temperature and system gain. For the purposes of this circuit,
the down conversion system consists of a low noise amplifier followed by a
mixer, an IF amplifier, and another mixer. This dual conversion architecture
permits the use of widely available and high-quality
VHF single sideband receivers. A low noise front end with high gain results in
the reduction in noise contributed by the following stages. Adding an amplifier
is based on the need to increase G1 and decrease F1 in

F = F1 + (F2-1)/G1 + (F3-1)/G2*G1 +….

 

Depending upon the frequency various stages can be added.
A single stage of this device gives a 12dB and 2.0 Noise Figure. We will be
implementing a single-stage for the same.

B.   
Quadrature Mixer Design

Fig. 4: Structural diagram of
Quadrature Mixer

 

The block diagram shows the use of a quadrature mixer and
complex-baseband architecture. In this case, the received signal mixes with the
cos() and sin() versions of the LO, with a duplicated IF chain and ADC for the
in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) channels.

 

C.   
Reflected Power Canceller

Fig. 5: Power Canceller Circuit

 

FMCW radar with
single antenna causes leakage of transmitted signal into the receiver which can
reduce the dynamic range and degrade the receiver sensitivity. One of the
greatest challenges in designing continuous-wave monostatic radar lies in
achieving sufficient isolation between the transmitter and the receiver. A
novel adaptive reflected power cancellation technique in real-time digital
signal-processing is proposed to nullify the transmitter leakage at the
receiver front-end to achieve high isolation. With the digital implementation,
the proposed scheme requires limited hardware and reduced logical elements than
the previously reported adaptive digital implementations.

 

                                                                                                                                                                       
VI.       
Results

 

Fig. 6: Circuit diagram for evaluation of signals.

 

The entire system is been simulated in the
LabView software for all the parameters that can affect the precision.
Different parameters and their constraints were addressed withthesingle aim of degrading errors in the measuring
system.

The system on simulation gives the output of 0.05
mm. Currently, the hardware-based research is been done taking
into account the various constraints of the hardware. The hardware designs for
various blocks ofthereceiver system is
been done for LNA, quadrature mixer and signal conditioning circuit.

The implementation of this high-frequency hardware is the biggest
challenge of the project. Every minor parameter
such asasubstrate, environmental
conditions, temperatures ranges for system functioning, heat sink, accessories,
etc. is taken into account for selecting
the materials for hardware implementation.Further,
we will be using here is a horn antenna which is also under designing. And lastly, we are also currently on designing
stage of Low Noise Amplifier (LNA). The LNA is designed for 24 GHz using
p-HEMT.

 

Future Scope

The
present study has been made to suggest and develop some tools which will
eventually be useful to the governments, industries, owners and/or contractors
for timely and accuratemeasurements of large infrastructure projects atareasonable cost and of a specified quality.

References

1    
Microstrip Design of Low Noise Amplifier forApplication in NarrowBand
and WideBand,  M. Challal, A. Azrar, H. Bentarzi, Electrical Engineering and Electronics
DGEEFSI, University of Boumerdes UMBBBoumerdes, Algeria

2    
A Dual-Stage Low-Noise Amplifier for 24 GHz
Using Packaged p-HEMTs,  Jeffrey Keyzer, Anthony Long

3    
A FMCW Radar Distance Measure System based on LabVIEW, Zhao Zeng-rong,
Bai Ran Electronics Department of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, China

4    
A Noncontact FMCW Radar Sensor for Displacement Measurement in
Structural Health Monitoring, CunlongLi ,Weimin Chen, Gang Liu from College of
Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, China

5    
Radar Applications in Level Measurement, Distance Measurement and
Nondestructive Material Testing, Johanngeorg Otto

6    
FMCW radar system with additional phase evaluation for high accuracy
range detection, SerdalAyhan, Mario Pauli, Thorsten Kayser from Karlsruhe
Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany

7    
A Short Range FMCW Radar System with Low Computational Complexity, Hyeokjin
Lim and Seongjoo Lee Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea

 

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