November 21, 2019

Introduction ration except that calcium and phosphorus levels must

Introduction

Japanese quails (Cotirnixcoturnixjaponica ) belong
to the family Phasiandiae,and are reared intensively for commercial meat and
egg production. Quail possess characteristic of fast growth, early sexual
maturity and high rate of egg production .They are prolific breeders and have
the ability to produce 4 generation in a year.Quail gaining importance as
diversified poultry species to augment meat and egg production .Moreover it is
valuable as an animal model to carry out laboratory research because of its low
body size, short life cycle etc.Feeding  Management:

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Nutrition is one of the most important factors
required to maintain quails in good physical condition and to obtain normal
growth and egg production. A “complete” feed or a well-balanced feed containing
all the protein , energy , vitamins , minerals, and other nutrient should be
prepared .Diet must contain nutrient levels that meet the dietary needs of the
birds being produced. Quail grown for meat are provided starter and finisher
diets, whereas laying or breeder birds are fed starter and breeder diets. Three
types of diet are recommended during commercial rearing: starter (up to 2 weeks
of age), grower (from 3 to 5 weeks) and layer mash (> 6 weeks of age).

Generally local farmers may usethe chicken starter
and layer diets for their growing and laying quails and supplement them with
high protein ingredients such as fish meal, soyabean meal and skimmed milk.
Fast early growth is achieved with high protein diets. These high protein
starter feeds will give quick development to growing birds as well as bringing
earlier and more consistent laying to hens.

The dietary requirement for birds nearing maturity
are similar to starter ration except that calcium and phosphorus levels must be
increased. In hot weather ,calcium level should be increased asquail eat less
food but still require calcium to maintain egg production. Shell grit or ground
limestone can be added to the diets after 5 weeks of age.

Growing birds are fed a ration containing
coccidiostat from hatch until the last week before slaughter. The feeding of
unmediated diets before slaughter is recommended when using any dietary drug,
regardless of whether the restriction is required or not. FDA approved two
coccidiostats( Monensin sodium 
&Amprolium) in quail feed .

Water

Water is most important nutrient for animals. Quail
need clean water at all times. Water must not be too hot or cold .clean the
water troughs at least once daily. Keep water and feed troughs clean of droppings,
litter, soil and other contaminants.

Feeds
and Feeding

Three types of  Japanese quail 
feeds are available : Chick feed (0-2 week), grower/finisher feed (3-4
week) and layer/breeder feed ( above 6 weeks).Broiler quail consume 550-600gm
up to marketing and adult layer/ breeder quail consume 35-40 gm/day. Feed
should be given ad libitum and the feeder should not be filled more than 2/3rd
of its capacity to prevent wastage.

The optimum energy level of quails is 2800-2900
kcal/kg feed during the growth period (0-5 week) and 2700 to 2900 kcal/kg
during laying phase (5-30 weeks of age).Protein and amino acid requirement are
higher than that of broiler chickens(Mandal et.al 2004d).Methionine and
threonine are the major limiting amino acids in maize-soyabean-meal based diets
for growing quail chickens. Broiler quail chickens. Broiler quail chicks give
positive response in terms of grain and feed conversion to a diet with higher
protein and amino acid levels (120% of NRC,1994) during  0-3 weeks of age. The growth rate is reduced
during 3-5 week of age and 90% levels of amino acids is sufficient to obtain
better growth and feed conversion. Therefore, a biphasic rearing system (0-3
and 3-5 weeks) has been suggested (kaur et al,2006,2007,2008) for growing
quails. Egg mass output as proportion of body weight is more than that of
chicken, thus ,requirement of energy, protein and amino acids in layer/breeder
ration are higher .Egg weight of quail is about 10 g. A 10 g egg contains 7.46g
water, 1.31g protein, 1.12g fat and 0.11g of total ash. The average daily feed
intake is about 25 g. The minimum daily protein requirement is less than 4.7g
and energy is 60 kcal ME per layer. Broiler quails lay eggs  almost at a similar rate as egg type quails
and the egg size is higher (11-13g) .The daily feed intake is  about 30g and minimum protein requirement is
about 5g (with energy 65kcal) in broiler line breeders. Daily water intake is
1.7 to 2.3 times of feed intake. All mash diet is preferred. For egg lines, a
diet with 21.5% protein and 2700-2900 ME kcal/kg during laying period is
sufficient .Meat type lines require slightly more protein. Requirement of
calcium (0.8% during growing and 2.5 to 3% in laying mash) and phosphorus (0.4%
during growing and 0.3% in laying more) or less.

Nutrient
specification for quail feed (BIS2007)

 

Quail
broiler diet

Quail
Layer Diet

Nutrient

Unit

Starter

Finisher

Chick

Grower

Layer

Moisture

Max%

11

11

11

11

11

Crude protein

Min%

28

24

24

20

18

Ether extract

Min%

3

3

2.5

2

2

Crude fibre

Max%

5

5

5

6

62.5

Acid insoluble ash

Max%

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Salt

Max%

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

calcium

Min%

1

0.8

0.8

0.6

3

Aval.phosphorus

Min%

0.45

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

Lysine

Min%

1.3

1.2

1.2

1.1

0.8

Methionine

Min%

0.5

0.7

0.7

0.65

0.6

ME

Kcal/kg

3000

2900

3000

2900

3050

 

Ingredient
and nutrient composition of Japanese quail diets(exemplary)

Ingredient
composition %

Feed
ingredient

1
 

2

3

Maize

51

41

33

Sorghum

14.5

15

Broken Rice

5

15

Maize gluten meal

2.9

3.5

3.5

Rice polish

8

8

Soyabeanmeal

36.5

17

13

Meat cum bone meal

3

5

5

Rape seed oil

5

5

Sunflower seed meal

0

5

5

limestone

0.6

0.5

0.5

DCP

0.5

0

0

salt

0.3

0.3

0.3

Lysine

0.05

0.1

0.02

Methionine

0.11

0.11

0.11

 

 

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