November 21, 2019

I. with various inks. Without any sizing at all,

I.                   
LIFE CYCLE
OF PAPER BAG

Paper
bag is a bag made out of cardboard paper. Paper bags are
commonly used as shopping bags and packing.

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These are
some materials in making paper bags:

i.                   
Raw
Material Procurement

Probably
half of the fiber used to make paper is come from trees/wood that has been
harvested. The remaining
material comes from wood fiber from sawmills,
recycled newspaper, some vegetable matter, and recycled cloth. Coniferous trees, such as spruce and fir, used to be preferred
for papermaking because the cellulose fibers in the pulp of these species are
longer, therefore making for stronger paper. These trees are called
“softwood” by the paper industry. Deciduous trees (leafy trees such
as poplar and elm) are called “hardwood.”

 

ii.                 
Manufacturing

This is
how paper industry manufactured paper bags:

Making pulp

·        
Several processes are commonly used to convert
logs to wood pulp. In the mechanical process, logs are first tumbled in drums
to remove the bark. The logs are then sent to grinders, which break the wood
down into pulp by pressing it between huge revolving slabs. The pulp is
filtered to remove foreign objects. In the chemical process, wood chips from
de-barked logs are cooked in a chemical solution. This is done in huge vats
called digesters. The chips are fed into the digester, and then boiled at high
pressure in a solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The chips
dissolve into pulp in the solution. Next the pulp is sent through
filters. Bleach may be added at this stage, or colorings. The pulp is
sent to the paper plant.

Beating

·        
The pulp is next put through a pounding and
squeezing process called, appropriately enough, beating. Inside a large tub,
the pulp is subjected to the effect of machine beaters. At this point, various
filler materials can be added such as chalks, clays, or chemicals such as
titanium oxide. These additives will influence the opacity and other qualities
of the final product. Sizings are also added at this point. Sizing affects the
way the paper will react with various inks. Without any sizing at all, a paper
will be too absorbent for most uses except as a desk blotter. A sizing such as
starch makes the paper resistant to water-based ink (inks actually sit on top
of a sheet of paper, rather than sinking in). A variety of sizings, generally
rosins and gums, is available depending on the eventual use of the paper. Paper
that will receive a printed design, such as gift wrapping, requires a
particular formula of sizing that will make the paper accept the printing
properly.

 

Pulp to paper

·        
In order to finally turn the pulp into paper,
the pulp is fed or pumped into giant, automated machines. One common type is
called the Fourdrinier machine, which was invented in England in 1807. Pulp is
fed into the Fourdrinier machine on a moving belt of fine mesh screening. The
pulp is squeezed through a series of rollers, while suction devices below the
belt drain off water. If the paper is to receive a water-mark, a device called
a dandy moves
across the sheet of pulp and presses a design into it. The paper then moves
onto the press section of the machine, where it is pressed between rollers of
wool felt. The paper then passes over a series of steam-heated cylinders to
remove the remaining water. A large machine may have from 40 to 70 drying
cylinders.

Finishing

·        
Finally, the dried paper is wound onto large
reels, where it will be further processed depending on its ultimate use. Paper
is smoothed and compacted further by passing through metal rollers called
calendars. A particular finish, whether soft and dull or hard and shiny, can be
imparted by the calendars.The paper may be further finished by passing through
a vat of sizing material. It may also receive a coating, which is either
brushed on or rolled on. Coating adds chemicals or pigments to the paper’s
surface, supplementing the sizings and fillers from earlier in the process.
Fine clay is often used as a coating. The paper may next be supercalendered,
that is, run through extremely smooth calendar rollers, for a final time. Then
the paper is cut to the desired size.

 

iii.               
Distribution

Distribution
of paper bag is widely distributed in the market to make use of wrapping
costumer’s product. Other sole proprietor owner make their own paper bag, this
is one of the way in recycling papers. 1000 paper bag weighs 52 kg, to
transport it; it will consume more time and more trucks to distribute in the
market.

 

iv.                
Consumer
Use

Plastic
bags have many use, these are some of the examples on how people use plastic
bags:

·        
In Pasig Mega Market, dry foods and materials
packed by paper bags such as: rice, clothes, and many more.

·        
Keep Bread fresh

There is
no notable use of plastic bags it is just use to pack something.

 

v.                  
Post-consumer
Use

These are
some ways in using again or recycling plastic bags:

·        
Use your paper bags as wrapping
paper for gift giving

·        
Make crafts
out of paper bags, such as puppets, hats, or decorated gift bags.

 

 

II.                 
LIFE CYCLE
OF PLASCTIC BAG

 

Plastic
bag used as shopping bags and made of different kinds of plastic.

Many
people will say that plastic bags are simply made of plastics but these are
some of the raw materials use by many manufacturer industries to produce
plastic bags:

i.                   
Raw
Material Procurement

According
to Lacoma (2017), Plastic bags are made from a ubiquitous polymer substance
known as polyethylene. Polythene is produced from crude oil and natural gas,
two non-renewable resources found underground, through a process known as the
tubular film process. This begins as ethylene, commonly extracted from natural
gases, then treated to become the polymer, forming long chains of carbon and
hydrogen atoms.

 

ii.                 
Manufacturing

Poly
(2014) listed the process on how plastics bags been manufactured.

The First
Step

A process
called extrusion is the first step in making a plastic bag. An extruder is used
to heat the polyethylene plastic to a temperature of about 500 degrees F. This
temperature will melt the pellets, at which time the molten plastic is pushed
into the machine and a die that determines the thickness that the bag will
have.   After this happens, the plastic film is pushed into a bubble
by the outside air and through a cooling process. Next, the film is cut into
the appropriate size and then placed onto a spindle.

The Second
Step

Once the
plastic bag is placed onto the spindle, it is sent to what is known as a
conversion department. This team unwrap the film roll and cuts it with a heated
knife that also seals each of the sides of the bags together. Once this is
completed, the conversion also adds all of the special characters of the bag.
Next, handles are cut out using a heat process, and logos, designs and text is
added to the bag.

 

 

 

 

iii.               
Distribution

Plastic is
strictly distributed in the market because many people believe that it can
cause damage in our environment, especially here in Pasig where we called
“Green City”. 1000 plastic bag weighs 6 kg, transportation of it is easy and it
will distribute easier in the market without too much time consuming.

 

iv.                
Consumer
use

Plastic
bags have many use, these are some of the examples on how people use plastic
bags:

·        
In Pasig Mega Market, fish vendors use plastic
bags, also vegetable vendors use plastic bags or simply wet foods or wet
materials.

·        
Carrying groceries

·        
Home garbage can

·        
Protecting items from dust

 

v.                  
Post-consumer
use

We all
know that plastic doesn’t decompose it just gets smaller, these are some ways
in using again or recycling plastic bags:

·        
Using a little bit of glue to turn plastic
bags into beads

·        
Filling of plastic bags in your patio instead
of buying pillow

·        
Make it a kite out of plastic bag

·        
Fashion a bracelet out of plastic bag

·        
Using it again in packing grocery item

III.               
Conclusion

 

According
to a comparative study conducted by Biona, et al (2015), they revealed that
plastic bag has lesser environmental compare to paper bag. The basis of the
conclusion is on the effects of the two in global warming, acidification, human
toxicity, and photomechanical ozone creation.

 

Base on
Science, plastic bags are better for the environment than paper bags. It is
because compare to paper bags, the manufacture of plastic bags is less
resource-intensive and also it has lower global warming potential. It added
that there is a small amount of energy and raw materials to make plastic bags
than paper bags.

 

After all
of the data gathered and analyzing the life cycle of two bags these are the
conclusion made:

·        
1st is in raw materials, plastic
bags have small amount of raw materials than paper bags, so it is to make paper
bags and manufacture can make higher amount of plastic bags than paper bags.

·        
2nd 
is in manufacturing, plastic bags is easy to do and it will not consume
more time while paper bags undergo in many process and can consume more time.
So it is easy to manufacture plastic bags than paper bags. Plastic bags are
stronger than paper bags.

·        
3rd is in distribution, if we
consider the number of amount of each bags and the total weight of it, plastic
bags can distribute in market than paper bag because paper bag consume more
time and more trucks in distribution.

·        
4th is in consumer use, plastic
bags have many uses than paper bags. There are no notable uses of paper bags
rather than using it in packing grocery items.

·        
5th is in Post-consumer use,
plastic bags are easy to recycle than paper bags; paper bag is easy to become
waste because it is weaker than plastic bags.

So,
plastic bags are better than paper bags base on raw material, manufacturing,
distribution, uses and post-consumer use.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV.               
REFERENCES

Biona et al (2015). A comparative life cycle analysis of plastic
and paper packaging bags in the Philippines. 8th IEEE International Conference Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information
Technology Communication and Control, Environment and Management (HNICEM).Cebu
City. Retrieved from:file:///C:/Users/Khenjoy-PC11/Downloads/Documents/Group%201_Plastics
paper%202.pdf

Lacoma T. (2017). Materials used for making plastic bags.
Retrieved from: https://sciencing.com/materials-used-making-plastic-bags-5267902.html

How
plastics are made? Retrieved from: http://rutanpoly.com/plastic-bags-made/

How
products are made. Retrieved from: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Paper.html

All about
bags. Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutbags.ca/papervplasticstudies.html

 

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