November 21, 2019

I. assist. Drowsiness detector is a camera attachaed on

I. INTRODUCTION

 

Smart Steering Wheel is an integrated system designed to ease and automate the process of tracking important parameters of the car like engine oil health, tyre pressure, coolant health etc. with assisting the driver for better and safe driving, helping in preventing accidents.

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This will be done with the help of features like smart steering, parameter tracking, drowsiness detection, GPS tracking, alcohol detection, etc. Smart steering is cover made to be wrapped around the steering wheel  which  will correct the  driver hand position while driving, which can be further modified to provide features like panic assist. Drowsiness detector is a camera attachaed on the steering wheel that continously monitor the state of the driver and also notify the driver when he/she is not fit to drive.  

 

Further advancements can be made to this project with the help of better access to technology, and more hands on time with an actual car, making the device more and more efficient and helpful.

Nearly 1.2 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,286 deaths a day. An additional

20-60 million are injured or disabled. More than

 

 

 

half of all road traffic deaths occur among young adults ages 15-45. Road traffic crashes rank as the

9th leading cause of death and account for 2.1% of all deaths globally. Road crashes are the leading cause of death among young people ages 15-30, and the second leading cause of death worldwide among young people ages 5-14.Each year nearly

400,000 people under 30 die on the world’s roads, on average over 1,000 a day. Over 90% of all road fatalities occur  in  low  and  middle-income countries, which have less than half of the world’s

vehicles. Road crashes cost USD $519 billion globally, costing individual countries from 1-2% of their annual GDP. Road crashes cost low and middle-income countries USD $65 billion annually, exceeding the total amount received in developmental assistance. Unless action is taken, road traffic injuries are predicted to become the fifth leading cause of death in a decade.

 

The leading causes of road accidents are:

 

1.    Distracted Driving

2.    Speeding

3.    Drunk Driving

4.    Reckless Driving

5.    Night Driving

6.    Drowsy Driving

7.    Tire BlowoutsIII. PROJECT WORKSoftware Requirements: 1. Opencv + Haarcascade: OpenCV-Python is a Python wrapper for the original OpenCV C++ implementation.OpenCV-Python makes use of Numpy, which is a highly optimized library
for numerical operations with a MATLAB-style syntax. All the OpenCV array structures are converted to and from Numpy arrays. Hardware Requirements: 1. Camera: A camera is an optical instrument
for recording or capturing images,
which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both. The
images may be individual still photographs or
sequences of images constituting videos or movies. The camera is a remote
sensing device as it senses
subjects without any contact . The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means “dark chamber” and
is the Latin name of the original device for
projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern
photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura. The functioning of the
camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. A camera may work with the light of the visible spectrum or
with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A still camera is
an optical device which creates a single image of an object or scene
and records it on an electronic sensor or photographic film. All
cameras use the same basic design: light enters an enclosed box through a converging
lens/convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive
medium(mainly a transition metal-halide). A shutter mechanism
controls the length of time that light can enter the camera.Most
photographic cameras have functions that allow a person to view the scene to be
recorded, allow for a desired part of the scene to be in focus, and to
control the exposure so that it is not too bright or too dim. A
display, often a liquid crystal display(LCD), permits the user to view
scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed, exposure, and shutter
speed.A movie camera or
a video camera operates similarly to a still camera, except it
records a series of static images in rapid succession, commonly at a rate of
24 frames per second. When the images are combined and displayed in order,
the illusion of motion is achieved 2. Arduino Uno: Arduino is an open
source computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that
designs and manufactures single-board. microcontrollers and microcontroller kits
for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control
objects in the physical world. The project’s products are distributed as open-source
hardware and software, which are licensed under the GNU Lesser
General Public License  or the GNU General Public License ,  permitting
the manufacture of Arduino boards and software distribution by anyone. Arduino
boards are available commercially in preassembled form, or as do-it-yourself
 kits.Arduino board designs use a
variety of microprocessors and controllers. The boards are equipped with sets
of digital and analog input/output pins that may be interfaced to
various expansion boards and other circuits. The boards feature serial
communications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus  on some models,
which are also used for loading programs from personal computers. The
microcontrollers are typically programmed using a dialect of features from the
programming languages C and C++. In addition to using
traditional compiler toolchains, the Arduino project provides an integrated
development environment based on the Processing language project.The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Select “Arduino/Genuino
Uno from the Tools > Board menu (according to the microcontroller on your
board).The ATmega328 on the Arduino Uno comes preprogrammed with a bootloader that
allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware
programmer. It communicates using the original STK500 protocol.The
Arduino Uno board can be powered via the USB connection or with an external
power supply. The power source is selected automatically.External
(non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery.
The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the
board’s power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the GND and Vin pin
headers of the POWER connector.The
board can operate on an external supply from 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with
less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board
may become unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat
and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0.5 KB occupied by the bootloader). It
also has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM Arduino/Genuino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a
computer, another Arduino/Genuino board, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328
provides UART TTL  serial communication,
which is available on digital pins 0  and
1 . An ATmega16U2 on the board channels this serial communication over USB and
appears as a virtual com port to software on the computer. The 16U2 firmware
uses the standard USB COM drivers, and no external driver is needed.
However, on Windows, a
.inf file is required. The Arduino Software (includes a serial
monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the board. The
RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the
USB-to-serial chip and USB connection to the computer  3. MEMS Pressure
Sensor: In less than 20 years, MEMS
(micro electro-mechanical systems) technology has gone from an interesting
academic exercise to an integral part of many common products. But as with most
new technologies, the practical implementation of MEMS technology has taken a
while to happen. The design challenges involved in designing a successful MEMS
product (the ADXL2O2E) are described in this article by Harvey Weinberg from
Analog Devices.In early MEMS systems a multi-chip approach with the sensing element
(MEMS structure) on one chip, and the signal conditioning electronics on
another chip was used.IV. WORKING
fig 1.Working
TriangleHere we are using a camera which will be used to detect the state of
the driver. It’s been done by image processing which is given from the camera mounted
on the steering wheel. When the camera detects dizzy state of state of the  driver then  it sounds an alarm to bring driver to its normal
state. A pressure sensor is been used to hand position of the driver. V.Methodology Our system works to help the driver to attain great concentration while
driving. For the same purpose we have implanted a drowsiness detection system,
which detects the dizziness of the driver witrh the help of the image processing
through the camera which is been placed on the steering wheel. This system
continously monitors driver’s state and alerts him when he/she is feeling dizzy
while driving. This system consists of the camera, a raspberry pi which processes
the video and detects when eyes of the driver are closed. When the eyes of the
driver are closed for more then 3 seconds then the system raises an alarm.Another system which consists of pressure sensor are placed on the
steering wheel to detect the position of hands of driver. When hands of the
driver are not on the steering wheel for more then five second then a buzzer will
make noise.  VI. Block DiagramFig 1. Block diagram of dizziness
detectorFig 2.Block Diagram of
pressure sensor  VI. SCOPE OF PROJECT There can be more features added to the current system to enhance it
and cover a wider spectrum in terms of safety. Such features include: 1.    GPS Tracker:This feature enables the owner of the car to track his car at every moment.
This will help in tracking the car in the parking lot, warn and control the driver
in regards with the speed of the car. It will also help new drivers, especially
their parents, to track them and get record of their speeds and driving performance. 2.    Alcohol Detector:An alcohol detector can be placed on the steering wheel or somewhere
near the driver, so that he can make sure he is not under influence while driving,
and also, the car can be programmed in such 
a  way  that  the
 car won’t start if alcohol is detected. This
will help reduce one of the major causes of car crashes. 3.    Panic Assist:While driving, if the car skids, due to oil spill, rain, etc. the driver
goes in a state of panic.This may lead him to move steering in unexpected way and in rapid motion.
Panic Assist will detect this movement and harden the movement of the steering resulting
in smooth movement of the car and balancing and stabilizing of the car. VII. CONCLUSION Smart Steering Wheel can help revolutionizes the current automobile and
insurance industry by providing details via  an  automated
process. The parameters which were ignored or not monitored on a more frequent basis
will be monitored on a regular basis. Also, the safety and caution features will decrease the  no.  of  accidents by 
at  least  30%.  This
 will decrease the annual death rates due
to car crashes from 3287 to 2300 a day, which in turn will help save 3,60,255
lives a year which is more than the population of the entire Maldives.Also if the device is put under an automated manufacturing line for mass
production, it is estimated to cost less than Rs.15000 retail. VIII. EXPECTED RESULT 

The objective to help driver concentrate and drive safely by minimizing
his distractions and assisting him in various areas is achieved. Dizziness
tracker will check conciousness of the driver, judging whether he is fit to
drive or not. And the hand posture corrector will help driver adjust his hand
posture making his driving more safe. 

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