November 22, 2019

Health It also refers to the theory and practice

Health & the Environment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Health & the
Environment

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INTRODUCTION

Health is a condition where the
person is not physically, mentally, and socially not fit or is not in the state
of well-being and is not only limited to merely the absence of disease or
infirmity. Whereas if we talk about the Environment it includes all the
external factors effecting an organism. These factors may be other living
organisms (Biotic factors) or non-living variables (abiotic factors). Such
abiotic factors may be temperatures, rainfall, day length, and ocean currents.
Health and the Environment both are directly related to each other and have
direct influence over each other. As, a good health depends on the environment
and for good health the environment must be good. According to Ivan Illich an
Austrian philosopher “Healthy people are those who live in healthy homes on a
healthy diet, in an environment equally fit for birth, growth, work, healing
and dying, healthy people need no bureaucratic interference to mate, give
birth, share the human condition & die”1.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Environmental health is a branch
of public health and is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built
environment that may affect human health. Environmental health has been defined
in a 1999 document by WHO as ” Those aspects of human health and disease that
are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and
practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can
potentially effect health “2.
Environmental health as used by the WHO regional office for Europe includes
both the direct pathological effects of chemicals, radiations, and some
biological agents and the effects (often indirect) on health and wellbeing of
the broad physical, psychological, social and cultural environment, which
includes housing, urban development, land use and transport3.
As of 2016 WHO website on Environmental health and states “Environmental health
addresses all the physical, chemical & biological factors external to a
person & all the related factors impacting behaviors, it encompasses the
assessment & control of those environmental factors that can potentially
effect health. It is targeted towards preventing disease and creating health
supportive environments. This definition excludes behavior not related to
environment as well as behavior related to the social and cultural environment as
well as genetics.4

AIR POLLUTION

Air pollution refers to release
of pollutant or any harmful substances including particulates & biological
molecules into earth atmosphere that are detrimental to human health &
planet as a whole. It may cause diseases, allergies or death of human being and
may also cause harm to other living organism such as animal & food crops
and may damage natural or built environment. To know how polluted air is can be
determined via Air Quality Index. Indoor air pollution & poor urban quality
are listed as two of the world’s worst toxic pollution problem in the 2008
Blacksmith Institute world’s worst polluted places report5. According
to the 2014 World Health Organization report, air pollution in 2012 caused the
deaths of around 7 million people worldwide.6

Causes of Air Pollution

Air pollution leads to an adverse
effect on human body and ecosystem. The main reason for air pollution is energy
use and the production. As during the energy use there is release of the other
energy in the environment which are harmful in nature. Burning of fossil fuels
also leads to air pollution. Smoking of cigarette and release of many harmful
gases or wastes from the factory in an open leads to air pollution. Many sources
say that the release of bad gases from the chimneys of the factory leads a lot
of air pollution. The No. of vehicles is increasing day by day release a lot of
gas which are harmful and is responsible for air pollution. Carbon dioxide
contributes nearly 80% of global greenhouse gas emissions, followed by CH4
(14%), nitrous oxides (8%), and flue gases (1%). Out of these, nearly 60% come
from energy supply, transport, industry, wastes and waste water.7  The global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels
alone have increased 15-fold between1900-20088. Throwing
of the waste things or garbage’s of our home on the road is alson one of the
cause of air pollution. It is also the reason behind the Climate change. The
release of the carbon di oxide & Methane raises the temperature. Smog forms
when weather is warmer and there is more ultraviolet radiation. 

 

 

 

 

 

1
Ivan Illich Quotes,  BrainyQuote,  https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/ivan_illich_404441
(last visited Dec 22, 2017).

2
Health and Environment (HEN),  South-East Asia Regional Office,
http://www.searo.who.int/indonesia/topics/ino-hen-2/en/ (last visited Dec 22,
2017).

3
Novice, Robert (Editor) (1999-03-29)  ”
Overview of the Environmental & Health in Europe in 1990’s ” pdf WHO

4
WHO (n.d.)  “Health topics- Environmental
Health” Retrieved 10-01-2015.

5
Reports, worstpolluted.org, archived from the original on 11-08-2010, retrieved
on 22-12-2017

6
7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution”. WHO. 25
March 2014. Retrieved  25 March 2014.

7
T.A. Boden, G. Marland, and R.J. Andres, “Global, Regional, and National
Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions,” Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.
doi 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2010, 2010.

8
IPCC , “Global emissions from 2004. Contribution of Working Group I

to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on

Climate Change”, 2007

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