November 21, 2019

Gunjan in the mouthwash trial will show resistance to

 Gunjan Patel
IB Biology HL Yr:2

The
Effects of mouthwash on the human mouth and how it affects the production of
bacteria

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Research Question:

How does
mouthwash affect the growth of bacteria in the human mouth?

Aim:

This
internal assessment aims to determine how variations of mouthwash affect the
production of bacteria in the human mouth. This is going to be achieved by
using sterile cotton swabs to swab the mouths (teeth and gum lining) of five
individuals and then placing it in a zig-zag pattern on a petri dish lined with
agar. It will be measured by using different types of mouthwashes, such as
organic, different brands and different contents in the mouthwash.  It will attempt to determine if bacteria in
the mouthwash trial will show resistance to the mouthwash during the week by
recording the growth daily in a qualitative measure.

 

Background:

The two types of mouthwash that people can buy
are, cosmetic and therapeutic. People can buy therapeutic mouthwashes in the
store or also by prescription from a doctor. Meanwhile, cosmetic mouthwash relieves
bad breath for a short period of time and in place of it, will be a refreshing
taste but it does not have any active ingredients while therapeutic does.
Ingredients in a therapeutic mouthwash may include: cetylpyridinium chloride,
fluoride and peroxide. Mouthwash is also helpful because it can access
places in the mouth where a toothbrush cannot. One of the most common uses of
therapeutic mouthwash is to treat halitosis. That is also caused from the
buildup by food fragments within the mouth that was not removed due to lack of
dental hygiene such as brushing for a short time and/or not using floss. People
with halitosis have cavities or gum disease. However, people that do not have halitosis,
also have buildups of bacteria in the mouth, such as Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus pyogenes, Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus mutans, and
Porphyromonas gingivalis. People have studied the efficacy of different types
of mouthwash and have shown that it provides an effective control of bacterial
growth as well as decreased pain following dental procedures.

Another
popular type of mouthwash is organic mouthwash, as it only contains natural
ingredients which only removes the bad bacteria. Xylitol, oils, and plant-based
extracts are all ingredients in a typical organic mouthwash. While Listerine is
the most popular/used ‘name brand’ mouthwash.

 

Personal engagement:

I chose
to conduct this experiment because I have always been curious why each
mouthwash says that they are number one. I wanted to find a way to prove which
mouthwash is the best at reducing the count of colonies of bacteria and to do
this I had four members of my family swab their mouths at the beginning of the
week and put it in four agar plates to let it grow throughout the week. Each
day after that, I assigned each member of my family a specific mouthwash and at
the same time making sure each person ate the same type of food to keep my data
accurate. They would use the mouthwash once at the end of each day. And at the
end of the week, I would swab their mouths and put it on an agar plate to let
the bacteria grow.

 

Mouthwash:
The mouthwashes that were used and the person who used the mouthwash
are listed below:

–       Listerine
Antiseptic Mouthwash containing alcohol (Person #1)

–       Crest
Scope Mouthwash (Person #2)

–       Crest
Pro-health CPC Antiplaque Mouthwash (alcohol-free) (Person #3)

–       Thera
Breath Oral Rinse (Person #4)

o  
This mouthwash is clinically tested and uses
OXYD-8 to attack only harmful bacteria and eliminate the bad taste in your
mouth.

 

Hypothesis:

This experiment is to determine how variations
of mouthwash affect the growth of bacteria, and it is expected that, out of the
list of the used mouthwashes in my experiment, Listerine and Scope brands will have
the least number of bacteria grown. This is due too that they are the only ones
that contain alcohol as an active ingredient, which is a known antiseptic that
is used worldwide as a disinfectant in multiple places such as a hospital.
Furthermore, the “organic” mouthwashes that are recommended by dentists,
contain natural/herbal products. The data on their efficacy are lacking
compared to the “name brand” products. Bacteria that are exposed to mouthwash
daily, will develop resistance and will determine if the bacteria show any
signs of resistance for one week.
I hypothesize, that the Listerine antiseptic mouthwashes will be the
most effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria with the organic
“herbal” brand being the least effective.

 

Variables:

Dependent
Variable:

–       The
amount of bacteria present
–       Changes
due to mouthwash use
–       Number
of colonies

Independent
Variable:

–       Type
of mouthwash
–       Time

Controlled
Variable:

–       Temperature
where petri dishes are stored 
–       Light
conditions where petri dishes are stored
–       Size
of Petri Dish
–       Type
of Agar
–       Time
between both trials
–       Trial
without mouthwash

 

Materials:

–       (10)
Pre-poured sterile LB-agar plates

–      
(10) 6-inch sterile cotton
swabs 

–      
four
different brands of mouthwash (different ingredients)

–       permanent
markers

–       Rulers

–       Scotch
tape

–       Agar
plates

–       Incubator

–       Heat
lamps

Method:

1.     Obtain
eight agar plates and sterile swabs from Amazon and get a heat lamp in the
ready position.

2.     Using
a sterile cotton swab, swab the inside of four individual’s mouths and make
sure to swab the front teeth along with the gums while twirling the swab in a
circular motion

a.    
Ensure that the individuals are eating the same
cuisine until the end of the trial

3.     After
swabbing for individuals, remove the lid of the agar plates and carefully twirl
the cotton swab across the plate in a semi zig-zag pattern, and then label each
agar plate with the name of the individual (also mouthwash when repeating
mouthwash)

4.     Close
the lid of the agar plates and slowly place them upside down and move the
plates to under the heat lamp.

5.     Leave
the agar plates under the heat lamp for 48 hours and after time has passed,
remove the plates from the lamp and take a picture of the plates to document
the growth

6.     Put
the agar plates on a table and near the lamp and put it back under the heat
lamp for 4 days. Continue to take pictures every 24 hours

7.     Obtain
four different types of mouthwashes, such as Listerine antiseptic, Crest
non-alcoholic, Crest antiseptic, and organic mouthwash, to determine which
mouthwash is most effective in killing bacteria.

8.     After
the mouths have been swabbed (step 2), assign a mouthwash to each individual
(different ingredients, such as organic/non-alcoholic). And after dinner every
day, each individual will need to use the mouthwash they have been assigned

9.     After
four days have passed, repeat steps 2-6 but with using mouthwash and also using
an incubator to let the plates with agar grow on it.

Data and Analysis:

Table 1: The data recorded, describing the growth of bacteria in the trial without
mouthwash, in relation to it filling the agar plate

Days

Agar plate, person #1

Agar plate, person #2

Agar plate, person #3

Agar plate, person #4 

Day 1 (Monday)

None (0%)

None (0%)

None (0%)

None (0%)

Day 3 (Wednesday)

Light growth
(

x

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