November 21, 2019

California provided 38.8 percent of statewide total public charging

California supports the development of electric
charging stations through the California Energy Commission’s Alternative and
Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (ARFVTP), ARFVTP funds
have provided 38.8 percent of statewide total public charging sites and 37.9
percent of charging outlets 72.

As of April
2017 California has 29 Open-Retail HRSs and is expected to have 37 HRSs be open
by the end of 2017 71.
 Table 26
shows the number of HRSs in California through from 2013 to 2016.

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Table
26. Number of HRSs in
California from 2013 to 2016 71

Year

Number of HRSs

2013

9

2014

10

2015

12

2016

29

2017 (expected by
the end of the year)

37

As of June 2017, there are about 12,000 publicly
accessible charging ports at more than 3,600 charging stations in California 73.
As of April 2017, more than 1,600 FCVs had active registrations in California 71.
Table 27
shows the number of FCVS on-the-road in California through 2013-2016 71.

Table
27. Number of FCVs in
California (2013-2017)

Year

Number of FCVs

2013

125

2014

152

2015

179

2016

925

2017 (as of
April)

1600

 

As of May
2017, about 300,000 Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEV) and PHEVs have been sold in
California 72.
Assuming the sales of BEVs and PHEVs have been zero before 2009, Table
28
shows the number of electric vehicles based on the number of new registrations
each year. The data used was from California Auto Outlooks covering fourth
quarter of 2013 74
and first quarter of 2017 75.

Table 28. Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs in California
(2009-2017) 74, 75

Year

Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs
 

2009

772      (100% BEV, 0% PHEV)

2010

1169    (92% BEV, 8% PHEV)

2011

8153    (78% BEV, 22% PHEV)

2012

29051  (43% BEV, 57% PHEV)

2013

71596   (48% BEV, 52% PHEV)

2014

131081 (49% BEV, 51% PHEV)

2015

193298 (51% BEV, 49% PHEV)

2016

268463 (52% BEV, 48% PHEV)

2017 (first quarter)

292733 (52% BEV, 48% PHEV)

 

Based on the projections, California expects to
have 13,400 and 37,400 FCVs on-the-road
in 2020 and 2023, respectively 71. Statewide Station Projections show 62
HRSs in California in 2020 71.
California targets a long-term goal of reaching 1.5 million ZEVs on roadways by
2025 72.

1      
Analysis and discussion

The structure
of the support for vehicle purchase and infrastructure development is
different. While in the case of purchase subsidy, the consumer stakeholder owns
the vehicle and the government just pays the subsidy, in case of charging
infrastructure and refueling stations, a model of public-private partnership is
followed in many countries. Incentives for EVs purchase are of the direct
economic incentives and incentives for charging infrastructure is of direct
collaborative and direct economic incentives. Direct incentive means that the
subsidy is transferred to consumer in monetary value 12 and
collaborative incentive means the government plays a collaborative and
managerial role in developing infrastructure 13.

Although the
purchase subsidy for vehicles is usually the most noticeable form of
subsidizing EVs in each country or jurisdiction (a research in Norway showed
that for more than 80% of responders to a survey purchase tax and VAT are of
high importance 9),
it should also be noted that incentivizing charging infrastructure has a
significant effect on the large-scale deployment of electric vehicles. For
instance, Zubaryeva et al. 14
stated that availability of proper number of charging infrastructure has a
significant effect on widespread deployment of electric vehicles in Europe. Sierzchula et al 15 also stated that adding a charging
structure per 100,000 residents has twice the impact on the EV market share in
a country than $ 1,000 financial incentives for consumers.

Table 29  shows BEV, PHEV, and FCV stock in
countries/jurisdictions compared in this work. As it can be seen, in 2016/2017
the number of BEVs and PHEVs are considerably higher than the number of FCVs in
all countries/jurisdictions considered.         

Table
29. Comparison of number of
BEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in different countries/jurisdictions

Country

BEV stock

PHEV stock

FCV stock

Japan

86,390 (2016)

64,860 (2016)

1800 (March 2017)

South Korea

10,770 (2016)

440 (2016)

100 (2016)

China

483,190 (2016)

165,580 (2016)

60 (March 2017)

Germany

40,920 (2016)

31,810 (2016)

477 (2017)

France

66,970 (2016)

17,030 (2016)

130 (November 2016)

United Kingdom

31,460 (2016)

54,960 (2016)

28 (Toyota Mirais sold until March 2017)

Norway

98,880 (2016)

34,380 (2016)

80 (October 2017)

Denmark

8100 (BEVs and PHEVs)

68 (September 2017)

Sweden

8030(2016)

21,290 (2016)

8 (May 2016)

California

139,600 (2016)

128,863 (2016)

1600 (April 2017)

Numerous
reasons contribute to the higher number of BEVs and PHEVs compared to FCVs. There are more models of BEVs and PHEVs available
for purchase. Governments have longer incentivized purchase of BEVs and PHEVs
compared to FCVs. BEVs and PHEVs have also generally lower prices compared to
FCVs. As there are more subsidies for BEV purchases all over the world compared
to FCVs, BEV manufacturers have bigger markets for mass production of their
vehicles. BEVs and PHEVs also have better consumer acceptability compared to
FCV because of the concerns about the hydrogen stored in a FCV. BEVs and PHEVs
also don’t need extensive refueling infrastructure at the first stages of
deployment like FCVs and BEV and PHEV owners can charge their vehicles at home.

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