November 18, 2019

Both formats to present the oppression in the novels

Both texts present a protagonist who is oppressed by a group
which are higher than themselves as these groups have full control over the
characters and their respective societies, the characters arc are displayed to
the reader through a first person narrator within “Never Let Me Go” by Ishiguro
to allow the reader to have a personal connection with Kathy; on the other hand
Orwell uses a narrator to show the protagonist Winston’s journey to create a
separation between the text and the reader to mirror Winston’s disconnection to
the party. The authors use a range of formats to present the oppression in the
novels some of which are: friendships, the role of women within the texts and
how the characters deal with the oppression they face within their respective
societies. These dystopian parallel worlds are displayed differently in the
texts due to the different time periods they are both written and set in and
the personal views of the authors.

In the texts the authors have displayed a variety of
relationships in which the protagonist themselves and other characters are
involved in, these of which are restricted by the systems controlling their lives.
These relationships are of varying degrees, from physical to deceitful and
friendships among others. In “Never Let Me Go” Ishiguro has split the text into
three parts creating separation and to show the different stages of Kathy’s
life of which she is reflecting upon. The same structure is used in “1984”
however it isn’t used to show a life time but to show different events, stages
of emotion and rebellion within Winston with part two being where he’s most
fulfilled with Julia but also ready to rebel and then this peak disintegrates
when he is tortured in part 3. In “1984” Winston develops only a singular
friendship throughout the book thus showing the control the party has this
reiterated by O’Brien as he states “The real power we have the right to fight
for night and day, is not power things, but over men”. This mirrors that of the
times of when Orwell wrote the novel as he had witnessed the danger of the
Soviet Union first hand in Spain which he projects into the book through the
party. As for “Never Let Me Go” friendships are a key part of the text, as at
the beginning of the text Kathy states “just how lucky we’d been – Tommy, Ruth,
me, all the rest of us.”  By putting them
before herself shows the significance of their relationships with her. These
friendships are tested throughout the novel, in part one Ruth is questioned on
a pencil case to which she says “Let’s just agree. Let’s agree I got it in the Sale” to which this after causes some tension
between the girls but Kathy backs Ruth up saying “a big mystery” this argument shows how their friendship is just like
that of other “normal” girls of their age but this also established the
hierarchy in their friendship as the use of italics in Ruth’s statement shows
the manipulation she has over the other girls, along with the statement being
repeated shows how serious this statement is and the fact Kathy backs her up
later showing Ruth has enough power over Kathy to make her feel bad. In part 2
Kathy states “Those early months at the cottages had been a strange time in our
friendship.” This shows them growing up and developing more as individuals
rather than as a group, however they still showed unity after disappointment of
Ruth’s possible as “Tommy and I were silent – a sort of resentment on Ruth’s
behalf” Ishiguro does this to show that though everything they are more than
just a friendship they are the only family and group they’ve ever known and
that their friendship is the one thing they have had control on whilst the
futures are controlled by the guardians. Kathy and Tommy’s relationship
develops over the course of the novel, however the core of their friendship
remains as they confided in each other throughout their lives and Kathy
refrained from telling him certain things in fear of upsetting him. The most
poignant part of their friendship is when the find they tape as Tommy says ” I
wish I’d found it”, then he goes on to says ” I used to think about it, in my
head, what it would be like, if I found it and brought it to you. What you’d
say.” Showing how the fundamental value of caring for each other always
remained.

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In regards to romantic relationships in both texts the
protagonists ultimately can never be with whom they are in love with. As in “Never
Let Me Go” Tommy and Kathy go to Miss Emily to see if that can get a deferral
they learn “There’s no truth in the rumour” with this information, they both
knew it meant they didn’t have as long together as once they had hoped. They continued
their relationship as Kathy being Tommy’s carer but as well as a physical
relationship by “having sex every now and then.” Then Kathy stops being Tommy’s
carer and “it was the last time” they speak of Ruth stating “are you glad Ruth
completed before finding out everything” by talking about her is symbolic of
them all being together one last time as through their oppression of being
controlled by the guardians their donations they can never truly live full
lives together romantically or as friends. Then Kathy states to herself “I lost
Ruth, then I lost Tommy to” showing Tommy had completed and that they couldn’t
ever fully be together. In “1984” fascism is clearly being used on Winston and
Julia as they are manipulated by their deceitful “friend” Mr Charrington as he
confides in him as he gets a room from him “for the purpose of a love affair”
However he betrays them as they are caught and a voice says ” you may as well
say goodbye” this is done as their relationship is seen as the ultimate
transgression and O’Brien deceives them as when together the state cannot
control them and have them devoted to the relationship which the party accepts
which is that of their allegiance to it.

In both texts women and their role roles within the texts is
another way the author have represented oppression. I share the view with one
of my secondary sources sutocracy.wordpress.com that Orwell understood that
rape was violence and he did this long before the feminism movement themselves
brought this topic to light, however Julia’s sexual acts are her empowerment
and her way of rebelling as it is seen as a digression from the state by
planning and having sex with many members of the party she is also increasing
the personal rebellion within the party’s regiment and it allows her to free
herself from her otherwise constricted lifestyle. Ishiguro presents oppression
in the text as a psychological thing as Kathy she looks through the magazine
“focusing on their faces” and then later on Ruth says “We all know it. We’re
modelled from trash” ironically they
will never know and this not knowing will leave them emotionally unfulfilled
which my secondary source schoolworkhelper.net also stated. This is a basic need
when we grow up to know who we are and where we come from and this lack of
knowing he how much they have been oppressed form themselves which is why
Ishiguro made Kathy like Julia (in “1984”) have many sexual encounters to fill
the void of the unknown.

Another way the authors represented oppression in the novels
is through the way the protagonist themselves view and see how and why they’ve
been oppressed. In “Never Let Me Go” throughout their lives they’re “told and
not told” of why they exist however they know from an early age “none of them
could have babies” to which Kathy says “none of us were practically bothered”
I found this quite unnerving and how throughout the whole novel no one rebelled
against the “Donations” and how they all accepted it as this wouldn’t been
something that usually people would be okay, this unnerving tone allowed for
the dystopian theme to come through but also for the oppression to be seen as
something that was inevitable and not to be questioned and just like in “1984”
and how the state/party shouldn’t be questioned, however in the book the
protagonist Winston and his love interest Julia do as she hugs Winston’s as it
states “in the ramifications of the party doctrine she has not the faintest
interest” showing they she didn’t care for the party or it views. By them both
simply consenting and partaking in their sexual encounters they were the
biggest rebels to the states as if their love/lust surpassed theirs for the
state it meant that the state lost full control of them and their beings. When
asked by O’Brien before his betrayal “Are you ready to give your lives? To
commit suicide they replied “yes” showing just how willing the were to fight
the oppressions set by the state on them, however when asked “You are prepared,
the two of you, to separate and never see one another again” Julia replied
“No!” this changed in expression and the exclamation mark show that she loves
Winston and that they have already surpassed the party in committing the
biggest act of rebellion and how much the despised the oppression forced upon
them in its extreme form. Also this lack of disregard for their own lives and
not caring about the implications of the action on the world could also mirror
how Orwell felt when writing 1984 as he was fighting tuberculosis which he
later died from two years after the publication of “1984” this could be why the
text has such a dark and political themes running throughout as Orwell himself
was very political having a dislike towards the labour party and their views to
which he projects onto the state within the text.

In Never Let Me Go a first person narrative is used from
Kathy’s perspective which Jo Walton expresses the view in the  essay 
“the unspoken and unspeakable : Kazuo Ishigurio’s Never Let Me Go” that “It’s Kathy’s cheerful
acceptance of everything that makes this so brilliant and unbearable.” I share with this view that Kathy and her friends
accept their fate this leaves the reader unfulfilled want for a rebellion as
they have had their freedom taken away with them and restrictions and the fact
this is never explored in the book gives the reader an unnerving feeling as it
is assumed by the current society whom read the text that they would as that is
what is seen in society today. Whereas Winston rejects the view of the view
that the majority accepts their fate to which Winston’s rebellion is a relief
to reader as he symbolises some form of hope and normality to the dystopian
world which are a contrast to the real world. In a system where individuality
is being eradicated a person can only be powerful if he fully embodies the part
as O’Brien says “if he can merge himself in the Party so that he is the Party,
then he is all powerful.” As the structure of the book Winston’s does this in
three stages as this is explained to him in part 3 chapter 3 of the book1  and O’Brien
says “There are three stages to reintegration” “There is learning, there is
understanding, and there is acceptance” and Winston’s fulfils all three and
shows full acceptance of the Party and Big Brother when he says “Do it to
Julia! Do not it Julia! Not me! Julia!” The use of exclamation marks shows the
anger in the statement whilst signifying the end of his rebellion and ultimately
accepting his fate like the rest of the society.

Both authors used their texts are warnings to society.
Orwell probably wanted his warning to be more significant due to his limited
time left, and Ishiguro unintentionally placed his warning throughout the
novel.  Orwell shows that if we oppress
or restrict humans it will lead to another war or Nazi like state where those
deemed viable are the only ones who can survive which is then decided by an
over ruling political state. Ishiguro didn’t start out to have an underlying
aim within the text, however through the acceptance of the characters and their
fate and their creation he showed that if there are no rules and too much
freedom is giving again a state or a party will overrule and exploit their
power which has been done within both texts. By combing both warnings
oppression is represented as something that shouldn’t be forced upon others by
on overruling states however rules should be placed so that a no ruling party
or group take over and cause their views to shape those of others i.e.  indoctrination.

In conclusion oppression is presented and viewed by the
authors as a negative thing which is shown throughout the novel through
structure and the relationships presented along with how the characters
themselves deal with their situations and through the narrative techniques with
the undertone the authors themselves have depicted to display their dystopian
societies and their views.

1 http://www.englishworks.com.au/1984-individual-takes-state/

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